The beginnings of education in our territory are closely linked to the spread of Christianity. The establishment of the first schools is also connected with the missionary efforts of the churches. They were established in the villages near the parishes. After the tragedy at Mohács (1526), the Esztergom Chapter moved to Trnava, and in parallel with the development of church life, education also developed under its influence. In 1560, the Trnava Synod ordered parishes to appoint a teacher for the education of children. Although the report on the existence of the school in Boleráz dates back to 1598, we can rightly assume that it was here much earlier. They only went to school in the winter and learned the catechism, reading, writing and counting a bit. Although it was a small education, it was an education.
In 1777, Queen Maria Theresa issued the first comprehensive school order called Ratio educationis, which had evident Germanization efforts. He also methodically guided the school system in the requirements for physical, intellectual and moral education. In Hungary, efforts to promote Hungarian were becoming increasingly apparent. In 1805 Francis II. approves the new Ratio educationis, according to which Hungarian has been introduced as a compulsory subject. Efforts for a unified Hungarian country and a unified speech broke out when the Hungarian Parliament in 1844 legalized Hungarian as the language of instruction.
On May 10, 1848, Slovak nationalists called to Liptovský Sv. St. Nicholas National Assembly and compiled the requests of the Slovak nation. The sixth point of the memorandum literally read: We demand the perfect establishment of national schools, both initial (elementary) and real, bourgeois, girls' institutes, institutes for educating teachers and priests, then higher literary institutes, especially: grammar schools, colleges, academies, institutes polytechnic and one university. All these institutions should be founded on the basis of free teaching and the language of instruction for the sons and daughters of the Slovak nation should not be different from the Slovak one, so that on this basis the Slovak nation can raise sons faithful to it and the country.
Hungarian efforts were also reflected in the school reforms of 1861 and 1879. Education thus became an effective tool for the assimilation of non-Hungarian nationalities with the ultimate goal of creating a one-year Hungarian complex. These pressures culminated in Aponi's school laws of 1907, according to which Hungarian was not only to learn but also to learn. It was in the spirit of the motto: Give us schools, we will give you Hungarians. Already after the end of the fourth year (at the time, six years old), the students had to master the forced language verbally and in writing. Teachers who did not achieve good results were suspected of a lack of goodwill or a lack of pedagogical skills. Those who achieved good results received Eastern preferences. For children in a purely Slovak area, such as Boleráz, this meant great suffering. The teachers required the children to speak Hungarian to each other on the street. The cataclysm of World War II was associated with this inhuman spiritual blackmail. Children's hands were needed at the farms because the fathers enlisted. And the results in teaching Hungarian were getting worse. This situation did not disappear until the coup days in November 1918.
The first teachers
We know from period archival documents that in the years 1713-1718 Štefan Šabikovič taught in Boleráz, in 1742 we meet Jozef Topoľčáni, in the years 1763 - 1774 with František Matušek and Matej Augustinus. In addition to teaching, they did organists and notaries. They wrote and compiled the general agenda. The cause was quite prosaic. At that time, neither the magistrates (members of the municipal council) were still mostly unable to read or write.
The already mentioned Anton Hubáček performed here at the latest from 1782. For teaching children, which lasted about a quarter of a year (beginning after All Saints' Day and ending before Easter), he received 25 denarii, a loaf of bread, and half a scale of salt from each. The pupil brought two logs of wood to the school. They heated them. The annual income for teaching was 6 gold and 80 denarii. The value in kind is probably included in this amount. This consideration shows that about 20 students attended school. "Exludirector" Anton Hubácek died on May 11, 1840 at the age of 95. If we compare the data from the visitation from 1782, where it was mentioned that he was 34 years old, then in 1840 he would have 92. In the end, this difference in records is not decisive, but the data from the register of the deceased seems to be more credible. In the years 1825-1843, Ján Matejka taught and played the organ here, Anton Benedikovič is mentioned in the years 1838-1843. The visitation from 1847 speaks in great detail about the teacher-organist, who, like his predecessors, also worked as a notary. He was Ján Benáči and he also had an assistant teacher. He had 10 gold coins a year for playing the organ. He used a garden, a manatee and a hemp. In 1867, Ján Žáni, the administrator of the school in Boleráza, was born on July 24, 1844 in Hlohovec. He completed his teaching studies in 1862 in Trnava. Before the death of Ján Benáči (62 years old), the children were taught by teacher Anton Lulej. Ferencz Komlóssy in his work on the history of Rome-cat. education also lists the names of class teachers in Boleráz, but unfortunately without years of operation. They were: Ján Tančarič, Adolf Glos, Ignác Nottný, Jozef Hanus and Adolf Reichfeld. The local school was Roman Catholic and was run by a school chair, an authority elected by parishioners. The chairman of the stool was, by law, the local pastor. Only a faithful Catholic who could read and write, contributed to the school, was interested in its problems, was not prosecuted by ecclesiastical or secular lords, had a properly married marriage, and should not be commented on in life.
The school stood where the organist was. It was very small, covered with straw. The interior consisted of two long tables and benches without backrests. The new one was built under the parish priest Ján Vanek, who personally contributed a lot to it and bought the equipment. The pupils were similar to what we see in churches. In the pre-revolutionary years, almost 100 children crowded this unit, as it was also visited by pupils from Klčovian.
In 1868, compulsory schooling was enacted for all children from the age of 6 to 12, and the composition in question was expanded. 3 years of Sunday school also joined in. Almost two hundred children already went to school, with older, younger students teaching in the morning.
Ján Žáni graduated in 1903 and went to rest. In the years 1903 - 1904, the teacher Alexander Rakúšan worked here, in 1905 Martin Jurenka, born on February 24, 1881 in Suchá n / P, joined. The Teachers' Institute in Esztergom graduated in 1901 and worked in Smolenice before coming to Boleráz. In 1905, another young teacher, Augustín Rozkošný, came here and was born on November 13, 1885 in Vŕbov. He graduated from the Teacher Training Institute in Esztergom in 1905. In 1906, teacher-organist Ľudovít Schronk (originally called Szentmiklósi) came to Boleráz. In 1907, Jurenka went to Neštich and Rozkošný went to the newly established state school in Šelpice. Schronk taught in Boleráz until the First World War and Ján Vanček in the second class. After the outbreak, they both enlisted. The retired teacher Halmoš taught here for the first two years of the war, the other two pensioner Martin Lahvička “. Attendance was bad because the families' fathers enlisted and children's hands needed the household. This also had a negative impact on the results of the teaching process.
In the new republic
The school year 1918/19 began on September 15. The young black teacher started teaching in prayer in Hungarian. In a short time, in November, everything changed from the ground up. The old name of the school - Római katholikus népiskola Bélaház - has changed to: Roman Catholic Folk School in Boleráz. The school didn't work for two months. Teaching continued until January 3, 1919. In the meantime, the administrator Schronk and teacher Vanček also returned. The language of instruction was already Slovak, the teachers had forgotten Hungarian and the methods by which it was promoted before the war were not worth mentioning before them. Ján Gregor started working at the school in October 1920, and from September 26, 1920, Jozef Miškech taught there. From September 1, 1923, the seventh year was introduced. 185 pupils entered the school. The class teacher Jozef Miškech left to work as a teacher on Klčovany on February 9, 1924. From 11 February to 17
In 1923, the superior school church authorities allowed the administrators of Rome-cat. the school could also be a layman, ie a non-priest. In October 1923, Ľudovít Schronek was elected administrator of the local school. He did not work long because he died on September 19, 1924. From March 3, 1925, Štefan Madygan, born on December 25, 1893 in Oravka (Poland), held the position of teacher-organist. After graduating from high school in Nitra in 1914, he studied theology, which he did not complete, and transferred to the Teachers' Institute in Štubnianske Teplice (now Turčianske Teplice). He graduated in 1919. Vojtech Nevím moved to Hatalov on July 30, 1932. They elected Štefan Madygan as the new administrator. At the beginning of the school year 1932/33, the pedagogical staff was supplemented by: Pavol Vlasák from Nemecký (today Nitrianskeho) Lawyer and teacher IV. class became Mária Krestová b. December 26, 1911 in Skotnice (Moravia).
Compulsory eight-year schooling has made the existing classrooms unsuitable for a long time. It was taught temporarily in the "Shepherd" and in the buildings belonging to the large estate in Smolenice (from 7 January 1935). After the departure of Vojtech Košovský, Ferdinand Klinovský began working in the pedagogical staff on July 29, 1934, and in September 1934 Rudolf Dusík from Boleráz joined. From September 1, 1935, Mária Valášková, born on September 30, 1915 in Dolná Krupa, started teaching here. She graduated from the Teacher's Institute in 1935. Teacher Valášková (married Dobošová) educated generations of students who, even after years, appreciate her excellent pedagogical skills, sensitive approach and human kindness.
The end of the 1930s was marked by great political changes. In October 1938, the autonomy of Slovakia was declared and on March 14, 1939, they declared the Slovak state. At the beginning of 1939, Vojtech Košovský left and was replaced by Dezider Szilágyi. The teacher Mária Chalupková was released from school on November 30, 1939, and on January 14, 1940, Katarína Nemečková came here to teach. Dezider Szilágyi also left, and on September 1, 1940, teacher Jozef Doboš joined. They also taught: Mária Lajdová, Marta Bílovská, Vilma Valentovičová, Elemír Halász, Frída Plchová, Jarmila Važecká, Mária Huttova, Jozef Bendzi, Vilma Kormúthová, Antónia Latkóczi and others.
Construction of a new school
The issue of unsuitable school premises appeared in the minutes of the municipal council as early as the 1930s. The question of the school was also resolved at the meeting on August 13, 1932. The notary presented an note number 161/32 on the resolution of the school chair. The mayor justified the negative opinion by saying that the consequence of the two-year drought and the glacier severely affected citizens, but especially farmers, so that in the given situation it is not possible to consider a fourth-class extension. He suggested that the council ask the superior school authorities for permission for alternating teaching, as the number of compulsory school children was 210 and 70 pupils per teacher was an acceptable standard.
Another problem that came to the fore in later years was the fact that the municipality did not have a suitable plot of land for the construction of the school. Therefore, in 1941, Government Commissioner František Danišovič began negotiations with Peter Pálfi, the owner of real estate in the village, about land suitable for the construction of a school. In 1942, the village acquired it. The council entrusted the native Ing. Dr. Petr Danišovič. He procured the project of a new 5th grade school and the corresponding budget. After the approval of the documentation, it was necessary to overcome the supply difficulties caused by the war. Therefore, he demanded the granting of an exemption for construction from the Office for Supply and Subsidy from the Ministry of Education and National Enlightenment in Bratislava. According to the budget, the construction was to cost 800,000 crowns. Ing. Dr. Peter Danišovič began construction in the spring of 1944. In the first stage, five classes were planned, managerial, assembly hall, cabinets, appropriate stairs and kitchen. The second included a washroom, showers, changing rooms, a gym, and apartments for the principal and janitor. From October 1944, German soldiers were housed in the new building. This means that the school already had a finished roof and living quarters. At the end of March 1945, the classrooms had wooden floors, were whitewashed, and only the gym and apartments. The crossing of the front significantly damaged the building, so in addition to the implementation of the second stage, the consequences of the destructive shooting were removed. only the gym and apartments. The crossing of the front significantly damaged the building, so in addition to the implementation of the second stage, the consequences of the destructive shooting were removed. only the gym and apartments. The crossing of the front significantly damaged the building, so in addition to the implementation of the second stage, the consequences of the destructive shooting were removed.
The first years
The construction, which was being prepared for folk education, continued in 1946. The commission of education and enlightenment established a state district burgher school in Boleráz on September 1, 1946 by Decree No. 79.867 / 46-II / 4 of 12 August 1946. Its district was determined as follows: Boleráz with the settlement of Banka, Klčovany with the mayor of Kanovič, Šelpice, Bohdanovce nad Trnavou with the settlement of Dolina and the settlement of Bíňovský mlyn located in the cadastral area of Bíňoviec. Alexander Lubušky was entrusted with the director, transferred at his own request from the State Bourgeois School in Bytča, where he had previously worked as a professional teacher. Margita Lubuška's wife (born Martinčeková), a specialist teacher, also came to Boleráz with him. The third teaching force was Mária Rovná, the definitive teacher transferred here at her own request from the State Folk School in Lučivná. Pupils were enrolled on 4. September 1946 and that day began teaching, but temporarily in the classrooms of the state folk school, because the new building was not yet operational. Classes began on January 6, and the grand opening of the school took place on February 9, 1947. The MNV took over the auspices of the event.